Terranova Screen Saver for Windows

Version 1.2

by John Walker
July 31st, 2006


Screen with sample images The Terranova Screen Saver for Windows 95/98/Me and NT/2000/XP uses the technique of fractal forgery to synthesise images of planets, star fields, and cloudy skies. Every image is unique; you could run this screen saver for millions of years without seeing the same image twice. You can configure the rate at which images change and whether images appear at random positions on the screen to avoid burning in the phosphor (the Prime Directive for screen savers) or are centred on the screen. You can optionally display the date and time.

The Terranova Screen Saver is available exclusively for 32-bit Windows systems such as Windows 95/98/Me and Windows NT/2000/XP. At the time of its original release in early 1999, this was one of the most computationally intense screen savers in existence (other than those deliberately designed to perform some background computation in addition to the screen saver function). On machines slower than a 90 MHz Pentium it may be unacceptably sluggish. If you wish to use it on a slower machine, try setting the “Mesh size” in the Advanced Configuration dialogue to a smaller value and selecting a longer interval between images.

Downloading and Installation

Download terranov.zip (Zipped archive, 80 Kb)

After you've downloaded the program archive, extract the files it contains with Info-ZIP or a compatible archive extract program, then copy it to the directory where screen savers lurk on your system, as follows:

Windows 2000/XP

copy Terranova.scr c:\windows\system32

Windows 95/98/Me

copy Terranova.scr c:\windows\system

Windows NT 3.x

copy Terranova.scr c:\winnt\system32

Once you've installed the screen saver in the system directory and verified that it can be selected, you can delete the terranov.zip and Terranova.scr files from your download directory.

All prior releases remain available.

Configuration

After installing the screen saver, select it by using the Settings item on the Start menu to launch the Control Panel, then click the Display icon to launch the Display Properties panel. Click the Screen Saver tab and click the Screen Saver drop-down list to display the screen savers installed. If you've copied Terranova.scr into the proper directory, “Terranova” should appear in this list; select it. If it doesn't appear, double check that you've copied it to the correct directory and file name.

The Terranova screen saver will run with reasonable defaults for most systems without the need for configuration. The Settings dialogue does, however, permit you to control a variety of items to adapt the screen saver to your own preferences.

Terranova screen saver configuration dialogue
Objects
The Terranova screen saver can generate images of planets, clouds, and star fields. By default, it randomly chooses the type of image, showing an average of six planets for each cloudy sky or star field. If you'd like to suppress certain kinds of images, uncheck the corresponding boxes.
Screen position
The whole reason for a screen saver is to keep a constant image from being “burned in” on the phosphor of your monitor's screen. To achieve this goal, by default the screen saver shows successive planet images at random positions on the screen. If you're more obsessed with symmetry than the health of your monitor (or you have a non-CRT display that's not vulnerable to phosphor burn), check “Centre” to display each planet centred on the screen.
Show date and time
If checked, the date and time are displayed in discreet dark blue type at the top of the screen. If you've selected random screen position, the date and time will shift horizontally with every image update, appearing above the planet in images containing one.
Always use 256 colour palette
Planet images, and to a lesser extent star fields, contain a very large number of different colours (you did notice that the stars are subtly coloured, just like in the real sky, didn't you?). If your computer's graphics hardware is limited to 256 colours, full colour images are displayed by performing colour quantisation to reduce the number of distinct colours in the image to 256, chosen to preserve, as closely as possible, the appearance of the original image. If your computer is equipped with “high colour” (15 or 16 bits per pixel: 32768 or 65536 colours) or “true colour” (24 bits or more per pixel) hardware, full colour images can be sent directly to the screen without the quantisation step. If this box is checked, images are quantised even if the hardware is capable of displaying them directly. The principal reason for this option is to permit testing the quantisation algorithm on computers equipped with full colour hardware, but there's another reason you might want to use it. “High colour” (15 or 16 bit) displays really don't have enough resolution (only 5 or 6 bits) per colour to render smooth changes in shade over large areas of an image. Clouds, and planetary oceans and icecaps have many such smooth gradations in shading. Such images, viewed on high colour displays, may exhibit unattractive and distracting “banding” effects due to the limited colour resolution of the display, and often actually look better when reduced to 256 colours. So, if you have a high colour display and are bothered by banding artifacts, you might give this a try. Colour quantisation is a relatively time-consuming process: it can take several seconds to quantise the colours in a 1024768 pixel full colour image on a machine in the 133 MHz Pentium class, but compared to the computation performed to generate the images, it is not a major contributor to the screen saver's consumption of CPU time.
Right click to copy image to clipboard?
Standard behaviour for screen savers is to terminate on any mouse or keyboard activity. Every now and then the Terranova screen saver may produce an image so striking you may wish to save it, for example, to use as your screen background image. If this box is checked (as it is by default), clicking the right mouse button copies the image currently on the screen to the clipboard, whence you can paste it into a paint program and save it as a file in whichever format you prefer. Since mouse motion (beyond a small increment) causes a screen saver to terminate, right clicking to save an image requires a special touch. It's best not to grab the mouse, but simply place your finger above the right button and tap it. It's possible your tap may move the mouse enough to exit the screen saver, but by then the image should already be on the clipboard. Uncheck this box to disable image saving; a right click will then leave the screen saver.
Change images every n seconds
A new image will be generated and displayed at the given interval. Of course, if your computer takes longer than the specified number of seconds to generate an image, it will only be displayed after its generation is complete.

Advanced Configuration

The Advanced Configuration button in the main Settings panel displays a dialogue which permits you to specify the parameters which govern the generation of images. Most of these quantities are specified as ranges within which the screen saver randomly selects a value for each successive image; if you'd like to fix a given item, simply set its maximum and minimum to the same value.

Terranova screen saver advanced configuration dialogue

The following table gives the default minimum and maximum values for each variable, the limits within which you may specify them, and a brief discussion of the effects each has on the generation of images.

Parameter Default Limit Description
Min. Max. Min. Max.
Fractal dimension 2.0 2.7 1.0 3.0 Controls the roughness, or scale of detail in the terrain for planets or for clouds in the sky. Lower values produce smoother results, while high values may be close to completely chaotic. Different ranges of fractal dimension can be specified for planet and cloud images.
Power factor 1.0 1.5 0.1 4.0 Sets the “power factor” (or exponent) used to scale values representing terrain elevation (for planets) or density (for clouds). The result of the image synthesis is an array of elevation values between 0 and 1. A non-unity power factor exponentiates each of these elevations to the specified power. For example, a power factor of 2 squares each value, while a power factor of 0.5 replaces each with its square root. (Note that exponentiating values between 0 and 1 yields values that remain within that range.) Power factors less than 1 emphasise large-scale elevation changes at the expense of small variations. Power factors greater than 1 increase the roughness of the terrain and, like high fractal dimensions, may require a larger Mesh size and/or higher screen resolution to look good. Again, you can set the power factor range independently for planet and cloud images.
Ice level 0.2 0.6 0.0 1.0 Sets the extent of the polar ice caps. The default range produces ice caps similar to those of the Earth, varying from ice age to interglacial periods. Smaller values reduce the amount of ice, while larger settings create more prominent ice caps. Sufficiently large values, in conjunction with small settings for Glacier Level (try 0.1) create “ice balls” like Callisto and Europa.
Glacier level 0.6 0.85 0.0 1.0 This item controls the extent to which terrain elevation causes ice to appear at lower latitudes. The default value range makes the polar caps extend toward the equator across high terrain and forms glaciers in the highest mountains, as on Earth. Higher values make ice sheets that cover more and more of the land surface, simulating planets in the midst of an extreme ice age. Lower values tend to be boring, resulting in unrealistic geometrically-precise ice cap boundaries.
Star Density 50 75 0 1000 In planet and star field images, field stars are placed randomly with a density given by this item. The probability a star will be placed on a given pixel is the value of this item divided by 1000.
Star Colour 100 150 0 1000 Controls the degree of colour saturation of stars in planet and star field images. The default values yield stars which resemble the sky as seen by the human eye from Earth's surface. Stars are dim; only the brightest activate the cones in the human retina, causing colour to be perceived. Higher values approximate the appearance of stars from Earth orbit, where better dark adaptation, absence of skyglow, and the concentration of light from a given star onto a smaller area of the retina thanks to the lack of atmospheric turbulence enhances the perception of colour. Values greater than 250 create “science fiction” skies which, while pretty, don't occur in this universe.
Star Cluster Number -3 1 -10000 10 In addition to “field stars” governed by the Star Density parameter, up to ten star clusters may appear at random positions in star field and planet images. The number of clusters in a given image is chosen randomly based upon this item. Negative values are equivalent to zero, permitting you to configure star clusters to appear only in a given fraction of images.
Star Cluster Density 10 100 0 500 The density (enhancement of star placement probability) at the centre of a star cluster is chosen between the limits given by this item. Larger values result in dense globular clusters like M13, while smaller values simulate open clusters.
Star Cluster Diameter 10 30 0 200 The diameter of star clusters is given by this item, as a percentage of the width or height of the screen, whichever is smaller.
Mesh size 512 128 1024 Planet and cloud images are synthesised by generating a Gaussian random spatial frequency map which is transformed into a table of elevations with an inverse Fourier transform. This item (a power of two chosen from the list box) gives the size of this array, or mesh. Larger arrays permit higher spatial frequencies and elevation resolution and thus produce images with more detail when the Fractal dimension is large. However, the computation time and memory required to generate an image increase as the square of the mesh size, so smaller mesh sizes are preferable for slower computers. The maximum mesh size of 1024×1024 requires 8 megabytes of RAM (each value in the mesh is a single precision complex number) and can take almost forever to evaluate on a slow machine.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why Terranova?
Terranova is Latin for “New Earth” which, if our descendants aren't any more imaginative than their ancestors, will probably be the name given to innumerable planets as terrestrial life expands throughout the galaxy. I like to think of the planets it produces as the view from the bridge of a starship in orbit around a habitable planet many light years from Earth, the star fields memories of the long voyage across the void, and the blue skies and clouds as a welcome sight for the first arrivals stepping out of the lander onto their new home under a distant star. The Terranova Planet of the Day has been a popular feature of my Web site since 1995; now this screen saver lets you make your own new planets as frequently as you wish.
I installed your screen saver on our server, changing images every ten seconds, and now my pointy-haired boss is screaming the server takes forever to respond. What's the problem?
Whoa! Computationally-intense screen savers like this one are for single user machines that don't run background tasks. Generating fractal forgery images takes a great deal of CPU time, and still more if the image must be quantised for display on 256 colour graphics hardware. Servers should run a “blank the screen” or other non-animated screen saver. If you must run this on a server or machine running background jobs, choose a long interval between image changes, such as ten minutes. How frequently do you look at the screen, anyway?
I just noticed that small cloud images tile perfectly when used as a screen background. How did you manage that?
This property falls right out of the spectral synthesis algorithm used to create the images. The mesh used to generate the clouds is produced by an inverse Fourier transform of a random frequency map. Fourier transforms express complex waveforms as a sum of a series of sine waves of given frequency, magnitude, and phase. Since the sine function is periodic (it repeats itself over and over at an interval given by the frequency), any image produced from a table of sine waves will also repeat itself, and thus the cloud images match edge to edge when tiled onto the screen.

Other Windows Screen Savers at this Site

Source Code

Experienced C programmers who wish to modify the screen saver or simply read the code to see how it works may download the source code. You're welcome to use this source code in any way you like (the third-party JPEG image library included must be used pursuant to the redistribution requirements described in its directory in the archive), but absolutely no support is provided—you're entirely on your own.

When you unzip the archive, be sure to use a utility which preserves long file names and specify the option to maintain the directory structure in the archive; the JPEG image processing library is kept in its own subdirectory, with the resulting library file linked into the screen saver. For reasons of history and nostalgia, the screen saver project and executable are named forgescr—rename forgescr.exe as Terranova.scr after building the program.

The source code for this screen saver incorporates Fourmilab's Scream SaverTM technology. Because they turn off the cursor and seize control of the screen, mouse, and keyboard, screen savers can be hideously difficult to debug; you can't see the debugger since the screen saver is monopolising the screen, and any mouse motion terminates the screen saver, bringing the debugging session to a screeching halt. Scream Saver avoids these difficulties by allowing you to test an unmodified screen saver in a regular application window which can coexist with a debugger. Scream Saver is a main program which completely emulates scrnsave.lib, allowing you to exercise a screen saver within an application window (in either normal or preview mode) or in full screen mode. The screen saver's settings dialogue can be activated by a menu selection. To build with Scream Saver, simply uncomment the definition of SCREAM_SAVER at the top of the file screamsv.c and rebuild. (It's best to do a “Rebuild All” since Monkey C often screws up dependencies between program files and libraries, and you may get link errors when you change the setting of SCREAM_SAVER.) Launch the Scream Saver build as you would any application. Your screen saver can be tested in its various modes from the “Test” menu. Scream Saver only terminates the screen saver on a mouse click or keypress within its own window—mouse motion does not cause it to exit. This allows you to run your screen saver under a debugger or utility like Bounds Checker as you would any other normal application. Scream Saver is in the public domain—you're welcome to use it in your own screen savers and pass it along to other developers. (One detail: Scream Saver allows you to start and terminate the screen saver any number of times in one execution session. This never happens when a screen saver is invoked by Windows. If your screen saver doesn't clean up after itself so it can be restarted, it may fail if you start it more than once in a Scream Saver session. You have two options: either fix the screen saver so it is restartable or re-launch Scream Saver for each debug session. The Terranova Screen Saver is restartable.)

References

The mathematical background and details of the algorithms used in this program are given in sections 2.4 and 2.5 of the following book, which contains a wealth of information on other fractal image synthesis techniques.

Peitgen, Heinz-Otto, and Dietmar Saupe, eds. The Science Of Fractal Images . New York: Springer Verlag, 1988. ISBN 0-387-96608-0.

Credits

The code used to display full colour images on screens limited to 256 colours employs the excellent colour quantisation module from the Independent JPEG Group's JPEG Software which implements Paul Heckbert's median-cut algorithm with back end Floyd-Steinberg error diffusion. The jpeg directory contains a complete copy of the JPEG package although this screen saver uses only the colour quantisation component.

The Independent JPEG Group's JPEG Software is the work of Tom Lane, Philip Gladstone, Luis Ortiz, Jim Boucher, Lee Crocker, Julian Minguillon, George Phillips, Davide Rossi, Ge' Weijers, and other members of the Independent JPEG Group.

The authors make NO WARRANTY or representation, either express or implied, with respect to this software, its quality, accuracy, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose. This software is provided “AS IS”, and you, its user, assume the entire risk as to its quality and accuracy.

This software is copyright © 1991–1996, Thomas G. Lane. All Rights Reserved except as specified below.

Permission is hereby granted to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software (or portions thereof) for any purpose, without fee, subject to these conditions:

  1. If any part of the source code for this software is distributed, then this README file must be included, with this copyright and no-warranty notice unaltered; and any additions, deletions, or changes to the original files must be clearly indicated in accompanying documentation.
  2. If only executable code is distributed, then the accompanying documentation must state that “this software is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG Group”.
  3. Permission for use of this software is granted only if the user accepts full responsibility for any undesirable consequences; the authors accept NO LIABILITY for damages of any kind.

These conditions apply to any software derived from or based on the IJG code, not just to the unmodified library. If you use our work, you ought to acknowledge us.

Permission is NOT granted for the use of any IJG author's name or company name in advertising or publicity relating to this software or products derived from it. This software may be referred to only as “the Independent JPEG Group's software”.

We specifically permit and encourage the use of this software as the basis of commercial products, provided that all warranty or liability claims are assumed by the product vendor.


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by John Walker
Version 1.0: January 1999
Version 1.1: August 2004
Version 1.2: July 2006

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