Monday, February 20, 2017
Transit of Venus: 2004 Updated
The Web pages for the 2004 Transit of Venus
have been updated to HTML5 with improved typography, embedded animations, and stale external links fixed. All pages and CSS style sheets have been validated for correctness.
Sunday, February 19, 2017
Les Quatre Saisons Updated
I have just posted an updated version of Les Quatre Saisons
, a one-year time lapse video of construction in a field adjacent to Fourmilab in 2005–2006. The new version includes embedded video using the HTML5 video facility. This provides higher resolution than the embedded YouTube video used previously. Some broken links to the tools used to produce the movie have been fixed.
The YouTube version of the video and links for users who wish to download the movie in a variety of formats continue to be available.
Monday, February 13, 2017
describes the longest continuously-running scientific experiment, which demonstrates how even the most viscous fluids will eventually flow as the liquids they are. Do it yourself instructions are included for the very patient.
Sunday, February 12, 2017
Reading List: Pale Blue
- Jenne, Mike.
New York: Yucca Publishing, 2016.
This is the final novel in the trilogy which began with
Blue Gemini (April 2016)
and continued in
Blue Darker than Black (August 2016).
After the harrowing rescue mission which concluded the
second book, Drew Carson and Scott Ourecky, astronauts of the
U.S. Air Force's covert Blue Gemini project, a manned satellite
interceptor based upon NASA's Project Gemini spacecraft,
hope for a long stand-down before what is slated to be the
final mission in the project, whose future is uncertain due
to funding issues, inter-service rivalry, the damage to its
Pacific island launch site due to a recent tropical storm, and
the upcoming 1972 presidential election.
Meanwhile, in the Soviet Union, progress continues on the
Krepost project: a manned space
station equipped for surveillance and armed with a nuclear
warhead which can be de-orbited and dropped on any target
along the station's ground track. General Rustam Abdirov, a
survivor of the
disaster in 1960, is pushing the project to completion
through his deputy, Gregor Yohzin, and believes it may hold the
key to breaking what Abdirov sees as the stalemate of the
Cold War. Yohzin is increasingly worried about Abdirov's
stability and the risks posed by the project, and has been
covertly passing information to U.S. intelligence.
As information from Yohzin's espionage reaches Blue Gemini
headquarters, Carson and Ourecky are summoned back and plans
drawn up to intercept the orbital station before a crew can be
launched to it, after which destroying it would not only be
hazardous, but could provoke a superpower confrontation.
On the Soviet side, nothing is proceeding as planned, and
the interception mission must twist and turn based upon limited
and shifting information.
About half way through the book, and after some big surprises,
the Krepost crisis is resolved. The reader might be
inclined, then, to wonder “what next?” What follows
is a war story, set in the final days of the Vietnam conflict,
and for quite a while it seems incongruous and unrelated to all
that has gone before. I have remarked in reviews of the earlier
books of the trilogy that the author is keeping a large number
of characters and sub-plots in the air, and wondered whether and how
he was going to bring it all together. Well, in the last five chapters
he does it, magnificently, and ties everything up with a bow on the
top, ending what has been a rewarding thriller in a moving, human
There are a few goofs. Launch windows to
inclined Earth orbits occur every day; in case of a launch delay,
there is no need for a long wait before the next launch attempt (chapter 4).
Attempting to solve a difficult problem, “the variables refused
to remain constant”—that's why they're called
variables (chapter 10)!
Beaujolais is red, not white, wine (chapter 16).
A character claims to have seen a hundred
stars in the Pleiades from space with the unaided eye. This is
impossible: while the cluster contains around 1000 stars, only
14 are bright enough to be seen with the best human vision under
the darkest skies. Observing from space is slightly better than
from the Earth's surface, but in this case the observer would have
been looking through a spacecraft window, which would attenuate
light more than the Earth's atmosphere (chapter 25). MIT's Draper Laboratory
did not design the Gemini on-board computer; it was developed
by the IBM Federal Systems Division (chapter 26).
The trilogy is a big, sprawling techno-thriller with interesting and
complicated characters and includes space flight, derring do in remote
and dangerous places, military and political intrigue in both the U.S.
and Soviet Union, espionage, and a look at how the stresses of
military life and participation in black programs make the lives of
those involved in them difficult. Although the space program which
is the centrepiece of the story is fictional, the attention to detail
is exacting: had it existed, this is probably how it would have been
done. I have one big quibble with a central part of the premise, which
I will discuss behind the curtain.
This trilogy is one long story which spans three books. The second and
third novels begin with brief summaries of prior events, but these are
intended mostly for readers who have forgotten where the previous
volume left off. If you don't read the three books in order,
you'll miss a great deal of the character and plot development which
makes the entire story so rewarding. More than 1600 pages may seem a
large investment in a fictional account of a Cold War space program
that never happened, but the technical authenticity; realistic portrayal
of military aerospace projects and the interaction of pilots, managers,
engineers, and politicians; and complicated and memorable characters
made it more than worthwhile to this reader.
The rationale for the Blue Gemini program which caused it to be
funded is largely as a defence against a feared Soviet “orbital
bombardment system”: one or more satellites which, placed in
orbits which regularly overfly the U.S. and allies, could be commanded
to deorbit and deliver nuclear warheads to any location below.
It is the development of such a weapon, its deployment, and a mission to
respond to the threat which form the core of the plot of this novel.
But an orbital bombardment system isn't a very useful weapon, and
doesn't make much sense, especially in the context of the late 1960s
to early '70s in which this story is set. The Krepost
novel was armed with a single high-yield weapon, and operated in a low
Earth orbit at an inclination of 51°. The weapon was equipped with only
a retrorocket and heat shield, and would have little cross-range (ability
to hit targets lateral to its orbital path). This would mean that in
order to hit a specific target, the orbital station would have to wait
up to a day for the Earth to rotate so the target was aligned with the
station's orbital plane. And this would allow bombardment of only a
single target with one warhead. Keeping the station ready for use
would require a constant series of crew ferry and freighter launches,
all to maintain just one bomb on alert. By comparison, by 1972, the
Soviet Union had on the order of a thousand warheads mounted on
ICBMs, which required no space launch logistics to maintain, and could
reach targets anywhere within half an hour of the launch order being
given. Finally, a space station in low Earth orbit is pretty much a
sitting duck for countermeasures. It is easy to track from the ground,
and has limited maneuvering capability. Even
guns in space
do not much mitigate the threat from a variety of anti-satellite
weapons, including Blue Gemini.
While the drawbacks of orbital deployment of nuclear weapons
caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to eschew them in favour of more
economical and secure platforms such as silo-based missiles and
ballistic missile submarines, their appearance here does not make
this “what if?” thriller any less effective or
thrilling. This was the peak of the Cold War, and both adversaries
explored many ideas which, in retrospect, appear to have made
little sense. A hypothetical Soviet nuclear-armed orbital battle
station is no less crazy than
in the U.S.
Saturday, February 11, 2017
Le Tour du Monde en Quatre-vingts Jours: Web Edition Updated
The Web edition of Jules Verne's 1873 novel Le Tour du Monde en Quatre-vingts Jours
was originally posted at Fourmilab in December of 1996. An updated version, with improved typography and confirming to the XHTML 1.0 and CSS 3 standards, has just been posted. All illustrations have been remade from the original scans into greyscale PNG images, adjusted for contrast. All documents have been checked with the W3C Validator
Tuesday, February 7, 2017
De la Terre à la Lune: Web Edition Updated
In April 1996 I posted a French language, completely illustrated edition of Jules Verne's De la Terre à la Lune
. This 1865 novel, about a voyage to the Moon conducted by a group of members of a gun club by means of 900 foot cannon, was one of the first works of science fiction in the modern sense. I have just posted an updated edition, using modern Web standards (XHTML 1.0 Strict and CSS 3), with improved typography and formatting. All of the text and illustrations are unchanged. All documents and style sheets have been validated for standards compliance by the W3C Validator
Sunday, February 5, 2017
Reading List: Hector Servadac
- Verne, Jules.
Seattle: CreateSpace,  2014.
Over the years, I have been reading my way through the classic
science fiction novels of
and I have prepared public
domain texts of three of them which are available on my site and
Project Gutenberg. Verne not only essentially invented the
modern literary genre of science fiction, he was an
extraordinary prolific author, publishing sixty-two novels
extraordinaires between 1863 and 1905.
What prompted me to pick up the present work was an
I read in December 2016, in which
recalled that it was reading this book at around the age of eight
which, more than anything, set him on a course to become a
mathematician and physicist. He notes that he originally didn't
know it was fiction, and was disappointed to discover the events
recounted hadn't actually happened. Well, that's about as good
a recommendation as you can get, so I decided to put Hector
Servadac on the list.
On the night of December 31–January 1, Hector Servadac, a captain
in the French garrison at Mostaganem in Algeria, found it
difficult to sleep, since in the morning he was to fight a duel
with Wassili Timascheff, his rival for the affections of a young woman.
During the night, the captain and his faithful orderly Laurent
Ben-Zouf, perceived an enormous shock, and regained consciousness
amid the ruins of their hut, and found themselves in a
profoundly changed world.
Thus begins a scientific detective story much different than many
of Verne's other novels. We have the resourceful and intrepid
Captain Servadac and his humorous side-kick Ben-Zouf, to be sure,
but instead of them undertaking a perilous voyage of exploration,
instead they are taken on a voyage, by forces unknown, and
must discover what has happened and explain the odd phenomena they
are experiencing. And those phenomena are curious, indeed: the Sun rises
in the west and sets in the east, and the day is now only twelve
hours long; their weight, and that of all objects, has been dramatically
reduced, and they can now easily bound high into the air; the air itself
seems to have become as thin as on high mountain peaks; the Moon has
vanished from the sky; the pole has shifted and there is a new north
star; and their latitude now seems to be near the equator.
Exploring their environs only adds mysteries to the ever-growing list.
They now seem to inhabit an island of which they are the only
residents: the rest of Algeria has vanished. Eventually they make
contact with Count Timascheff, whose yacht was standing offshore and,
setting aside their dispute (the duel deferred in light of greater
things is a theme you'll find elsewhere in the works of Verne),
they seek to explore the curiously altered world they now inhabit.
Eventually, they discover its inhabitants seem to number only
thirty-six: themselves, the Russian crew of Timascheff's yacht; some
Spanish workers; a young Italian girl and Spanish boy; Isac
Hakhabut, a German Jewish itinerant trader whose ship full
of merchandise survived the cataclysm; the remainder of the
British garrison at Gibraltar, which has been cut off and reduced
to a small island; and Palmyrin Rosette, formerly Servadac's
teacher (and each other's nemeses), an eccentric and irritable
astronomer. They set out on a voyage of exploration and begin
to grasp what has happened and what they must do to survive.
In 1865, Verne took us
la terre à la lune. Twelve years later, he
treats us to a tour of the solar system, from the orbit of
Venus to that of Jupiter, with abundant details of what was
known about our planetary neighbourhood in his era. As usual,
his research is nearly impeccable, although the orbital mechanics
are fantasy and must be attributed to literary license: a body
with an orbit which crosses those of Venus and Jupiter cannot
have an orbital period of two years: it will be around five
years, but that wouldn't work with the story. Verne has his usual
fun with the national characteristics of those we encounter.
Modern readers may find the descriptions of the miserly Jew Hakhabut
and the happy but indolent Spaniards offensive—so be
it—such is nineteenth century literature.
This is a grand adventure: funny, enlightening, and engaging the reader
in puzzling out mysteries of physics, astronomy, geology, chemistry,
and, if you're like this reader, checking the author's math (which,
orbital mechanics aside, is more or less right, although he doesn't
make the job easy by using a multitude of different units). It's
completely improbable, of course—you don't go to Jules Verne
for that: he's the fellow who shot people to the Moon with a
nine hundred foot cannon—but just as readers of modern
science fiction are willing to accept faster than light drives
to make the story work, a little suspension of disbelief here will
yield a lot of entertainment.
Jules Verne is the second most translated of modern authors (Agatha
Christie is the first) and the most translated of those writing in
French. Regrettably, Verne, and his reputation, have suffered from
poor translation. He is a virtuoso of the French language, using
his large vocabulary to layer meanings and subtexts beneath the
surface, and many translators fail to preserve these subtleties.
There have been several
of this novel under different titles (which I shall decline to
state, as they are spoilers for the first half of the book), none of
which are deemed worthy of the original.
I read the Kindle edition from Arvensa,
which is absolutely superb. You don't usually expect much when
you buy a Kindle version of a public domain work for US$ 0.99,
but in this case you'll receive a thoroughly professional
edition free of typographical errors which includes all of the
original illustrations from the original 1877 Hetzel edition.
In addition there is a comprehensive biography of Jules Verne and
an account of his life and work published at the height of
his career. Further, the Kindle French dictionary, a free download,
is absolutely superb when coping with Verne's enormous vocabulary.
Verne is very fond of obscure terms, and whether discussing
nautical terminology, geology, astronomy, or any other
specialties, peppers his prose with jargon which
used to send me off to flip through the
Little Bob. Now
it's just a matter of highlighting the word (in the iPad Kindle app),
and up pops the definition from the amazingly comprehensive
dictionary. (This is a French-French dictionary; if you need a
dictionary which provides English translations, you'll need to install
such an application.) These
editions are absolutely the
best way to enjoy Jules Verne and other classic French authors, and
I will definitely seek out others to read in the future. You can obtain
complete works of Jules Verne, 160 titles, with
5400 illustrations, for US$ 2.51 at this writing.
Wednesday, February 1, 2017
Fourmilab Adds IPv6 Access
No, you're not dreaming—starting today, you can access Fourmilab over the IPv6
Internet protocol as well as the legacy IPv4
protocol. IPv6 remedies the address space exhaustion problems of IPv4 by moving to a 128 bit address space which should alleviate the crisis at least until every elementary particle in the universe requires its own Internet address or the network is extended into the multiverse. An IPv6 address is written as groups of hexadecimal digits separated by colons. Fourmilab's IPv6 address is thus “2a05:d014:d43:3101:c6ee:ea42:3836:6cbf
”. If you're a glutton for punishment, you can type in this address, for example in a URL:
(the square brackets in the address are per RFC 2732
) but most people will rely upon the Domain Name System (DNS) to look up the addresses. The DNS entries for fourmilab.ch now supply both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, permitting browsers and operating systems to choose whichever is best supported on the platform on which they're running.
Fourmilab's implementation of IPv6 is thanks to Amazon AWS
, who host the site, and have rolled out IPv6 support
recently to all of their data centres around the world except for those in China. If you, like Fourmilab, use the AWS Linux AMI
, the process of upgrading your site to support IPv6 is somewhat tedious but straightforward, and worked the first time. Here is the Amazon guide I followed
. If you're interested in adding support for IPv6 to your own AWS Linux AMI site, send me a feedback message and I'll send you my system narrative for the installation process.
Here is a third party evaluation
of Fourmilab's support for IPv6. Does your computer and Internet connection support IPv6? Here is a site which will tell you
As a site which has been on the Internet for more than two decades, Fourmilab has accreted many aliases and hacks in the way people access the site. There are a number of alias domains (for example, “fourmilab.com”) which reach the site, and each needs to be updated to support IPv6. I will be working on this in the days to come.
Tuesday, January 31, 2017
Bending Spacetime in the Basement: HTML5 Update
Bending Spacetime in the Basement
was one of the first “basement science” experiments posted on Fourmilab. It shows how to demonstrate universal gravitation on the human scale with simple apparatus and speculates on how Archimedes might have discovered universal gravitation 1900 years before Newton.
This page was originally posted in July of 1997, and was showing its age. I have just posted a 2017 update
, which uses HTML5 to provide improved typography and embed videos of the experiments within the page.
This is a demanding experiment. Some people have managed to reproduce it, while others have run into difficulties. You need a location with a stable temperature, free of drafts, which is far from walls or other massive structures. You'll need to be patient to wait for the stresses in the support fibre to be released. It took me about two months to sort out all of the disturbing influences and obtain the reliable results presented here. It is, thus, not an ideal project to introduce school classes to experimental science unless the goal is to demonstrate how frustrating an endeavour it can be. (That said, some teachers have managed to get this experiment to work for their classes, who much appreciated it,)
Sunday, January 29, 2017
Orbits in Strongly Curved Spacetime: HTML5 Update
Since February 1997, Orbits in Strongly Curved Spacetime
has allowed visitors to explore the wildly non-Keplerian orbits of a test mass in the vicinity of a compact gravitating body such as a neutron star or black hole. This was accomplished through an animation which plots the orbit and shows the motion of the particle in the gravitational effective potential and gravity well surrounding the object. The animation was implemented as a Java applet, which, as I have noted earlier here
, fewer and fewer browsers support.
I have just posted an updated version